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Seaweed as Commercial Biofertilizer Which Have an Effect to Water Quality in Aquaponic System

Found and studied a glimmer of knowledge, for me, is so amazing. Somehow, I was not sure what I design, and I just having very little time to do that research. And I'm so glad when I can finished on time. I try to share what I learn. I hope this article can be useful.

~oOo~

Abstract
Biofertilizer derived seaweed contains a wide variety of organic compounds, has elements of macro and micronutrients, as well as a substance containing fitohormon growth boosters. Aquaponics system is considered very efficient because it can combine aquaculture and hydroponic cultivation in one cycle. In this study, selected commodities tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and vegetable celery (Apium graveolens). This study aimed to determine changes in water quality resulting after the addition of biofertilizer products seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) commercial that also affect the growth of tilapia and vegetables celery. The study was conducted using the method of RAL. Treatments with biofertilizer seaweed (A. nodosum) commercial with doses of 0 ml / l of water (control), 1 ml / l of water, 2 ml / l of water, and 3 ml / l of water, each treatment was repeated 5 time. The main parameters measured were water quality parameters comprising temperature, acidity, dissolved oxygen and ammonia. Supporting parameters measured were the growth of tilapia and celery. Analysis of observational data using descriptive methods. Based on the survey results revealed that biofertilizer seaweed (A. nodosum) effect on water quality in tilapia's maintenance media and it has optimal doses was 3 ml / l.

Keywords : Biofertilizer, Ascophyllum nodosum, Oreochromis niloticus, Apium graveolens, Water Quality.


Exordium
Indonesian marine area of ​​approximately 70% consists of the sea, the beach is rich in various types of biological sources of potential to be used as food and organic fertilizer. Seaweed is one of the living marine resources that have potential food ingredients and pharmaceutical ingredients considerable potential and is an economically valuable commodity because it is needed by humans and are often used as industrial raw materials. The benefits of seaweed as well as food, pharmaceutical materials and industrial raw materials can also be used as a fertilizer (biofertilizer).

There is an excess of seaweed as biofertilizer which contains macro and micro nutrients are complete including vitamins, amino acids and antibiotics as well as a substance containing fitohormon growth boosters (PGR) such as auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, abisat acid and ethylene. Therefore, are now starting to be developed biofertilizer seaweed of various types of seaweed commercially.

Fertilization in plants that live in the waters are still very rarely done because water is seen as a growing medium always provide enough nutrients for plant growth. Media planting aquatic plants can be combined with the maintenance of fish in a single container called aquaponics maintenance. Aquaponics system technology is emerging as the answer to their problems more difficulty in getting water suitable for fish farming, particularly in the narrow land.

One commodity that is tilapia fish farming and crops which can be cultivated with aquaponics system is celery. Tilapia besides having adaptability and tolerance to water quality in a wide range, is also much-loved by the people because the taste of the meat is typical and gentle. Celery is a plant that has many benefits such as food flavoring and beneficial to human health. Additionally morphology celery tend to prefer running water and a shallow root system that can absorb water so it can take advantage of the remnants of the activity and metabolism of fish in the waters and process them into nutrients for the growth of celery itself. Based on the theory research is conducted biofertilizer products effect seaweed (A. nodosum) to changes in water quality in aquaponics system.



Method
The experiment was conducted in Kebun Sayur Penjaringan Surabaya and the water quality tested at Laboratorium Pendidikan Fakultas Perikanan dan Kelautan Universitas Airlangga in June 2016.

The tools used : 20 sets of filter water pump with a container measuring 25 x 16 x 10 cm, 20 pieces plastic container measuring 10 liters, pumice as a filter, DO meter, thermometer, pH meter, ammonia teskit, rulers, measuring cups, and digital scales.

The materials used : 150 black tilapia (O. niloticus) size of 7-11 cm are obtained from fish hatcheries in Kediri, 20 pieces organic celery (A. graveolens) was 7 weeks after planting with height of 15 -21 cm obtained from Kebun Sayur Ketintang Surabaya, biofertilizer seaweed (A. nodosum) commercial with the composition:
_Macro elements: 5.24% Nitrogen (N); 3.36% Phosphate (P2O2); 4.37% Potassium (K2O); 1.33% Sulfate (S).
_Micro elements: 9.37% C-Org; 0.24% (Magnesium) Mg; 0.01% Calcium (Ca); 0.53% Chlorine (Cl); Ferrum 340ppm / Iron (Fe); 318ppm Manganese (Mn); Cuprum 279ppm / Copper (Cu); 273ppm tin (Zn); 182ppm boron (B); 9ppm Molybdenum (Mo); Plumbum 2ppm / Lead (Pb); 0,03ppm Cadmium (Cd); 12ppm Cobalt (Co); 0,2ppm Arsenic (As).
_Acid: 0.336% total amino; 0.160% humic acid; 0.110% fulfik acid.
_Hormones: 39,04ppm Indol Acetic Acid (IAA); 35,28ppm Zeatin; 40,07ppm Kinetin; 80,23ppm Giberelin Acid (GA3).

Research methods use an experimental system completely randomized design (CRD). Research was given four treatments and repeated five times, namely:
A: Treatment aquaponics system with biofertilizer seaweed (A. nodosum) commercial 0 ml / l of water (control)
B: Treatment aquaponics system with biofertilizer seaweed (A. nodosum) commercial 1 ml / l of water.
C: Treatment aquaponics system with biofertilizer seaweed (A. nodosum) commercial 2 ml / l of water.
D: Treatment aquaponics system with biofertilizer seaweed (A. nodosum) commercial 3 ml / l of water.


Procedure
The tools washed with detergent and rinsed with clean water, then washed again with 12 ppm chlorine solution, then washed with water and dried in the sun.

Biofertilizer dose of seaweed (A. nodosum) that is used is measured using the measuring cup 0 ml / l of water (control), 1 ml / l of water, 2 ml / l of water, and 3 ml / l of water.

Planting medium used vegetable celery is pumice. Pumice was arranged so that it can become an attachment for celery root vegetables. In an aquarium filled containers as much as six liters of fresh water as the medium of live tilapia.

120 tilapia (O. niloticus) length and body weight were measured and then placed six fish each aquariums. Fish acclimatized and fasted for 2x24 hours before treatment. Tilapia are fed commercially by awarding the amount of feed each treatment as much as 3% of the average weight of fish that had weighed on digital scales.

Vegetables celery (A. graveolens) organic measured 7 weeks after planting and uniform length of 20 cm then placed on the container research, each container contains 5 rod complete with celery root.

Biofertilizer seaweed (A. nodosum) commercial inserted at each aquarium with dose of 0 ml / l of water, 1 ml / l of water, 2 ml / l of water, and 3 ml / l of water. Biofertilizer which mixed with water in the aquarium pumped into the plant container. Then from plant containers, water falls according to the force of gravity towards the aquarium. Recirculation water flow rotates until the research ended. The research was conducted over seven days. Feeding the fish every morning and evening.


Parameter
The main parameters were observed in this research is the measurement of water quality parameters such as temperature using a thermometer, dissolved oxygen using DO-meter, and pH using a universal pH indicator paper.
Two times everyday (morning and afternoon) measuring the temperature of the aquarium water.
At the beginning and end of the research was measuring the pH.
At the end of the research was measuring the dissolved oxygen and ammonia.
Parameter supporting this research was the growth of tilapia (O. niloticus) and celery (A. graveolens) as measured after administration of biofertilizer until the end of the study for seven days.


Result
Temperature

pH

Dissolved Oxygen

Ammonia

Growth


Discussion
Biofertilizer derived seaweed contains a variety of organic compounds which include aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, alginic acid, laminarin and mannitol. In addition, seaweed extract also has elements of macro and micronutrient include carbohydrates, various vitamins (C; B; B2; B12; D3; E and K), niacin, pantotenik, folic acid and acid folinik. As biofertilizer, seaweed has advantages fitohormon as boosters substance that is needed to grow plants, auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abisat acid, ethylene, betaine and polyamine.

Auxin has a primary function affects the length stem, growth, differentiation and branching roots; fruit development; phototropism and geotropisme. IAA (Indol Acetic Acid) hormone contained in seaweed biofertilizer (A. nodosum) including one type of auxin functions to stimulate root formation.

Cytokinins are the most common in seaweed extract and capable of producing physiological changes even when applied at low concentrations. Included in cytokinin is kinetin and zeatin. Biofertilizer as seaweed (A. nodosum) contains the hormone commercial kinetin and zeatin. Cytokinin is one of the substances boosters grown used to stimulate adventitious buds or axillary buds grow and stimulate cell division as a whole.

Giberelin serves to encourage the development of seed, bud development, stem elongation and leaf growth; encourage flowering and fruit development; affect the growth and differentiation of the root. Today gibberellins extracted from seaweed is divided into two GA3 and GA7. GA3 content are found in biofertilizer as seaweed (A. nodosum).

Giving biofertilizer as seaweed in the water can increase phytoplankton populations. Fertilizer biofertilizer can enlarge the population of microorganisms in the water. The population of microorganisms increases will affect several water quality parameters. Microorganisms will consume a lot of oxygen, causing low oxygen dissolved in the water. In conditions of limited oxygen, bacteria decomposing produce compounds such as ammonia and nitrite that are toxic to the fish. Plants in cultivation aquaponics system is useful to absorb the components that are not needed in waters.

Water quality parameters affect the survival, proliferation, and growth of fish. Water quality measured in the research include temperature, acidity (pH), dissolved oxygen and ammonia. pH changes showed the process of photosynthesis and respiration by phytoplankton and tilapia. A decrease in the pH value at the end of the research due to the accumulation of the amount of carbon dioxide as a result of respiration by organisms and microorganisms as well as the process of decomposition by bacteria in each aquarium.

The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water is always changing because of their biology and physics. Biological factors that influence the concentration of oxygen in the waters that is the process of photosynthesis and respiration. The process of photosynthesis of phytoplankton waters can affect the solubility of oxygen in water. The process of respiration by living things need oxygen in waters that may also affect the concentration of dissolved oxygen. With the addition of biofertilizer, also increases the microorganisms in the aquarium so that affects the solubility of oxygen. Physical factors affecting the concentration or the solubility of oxygen in the waters of one of them is the temperature. Rising temperatures will decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen and vice versa. During research is needed aerator that support the diffusion of the air into the water to increase oxygen in the aquarium. Value solubility of oxygen in the aquarium during the study ranged between 5.06-6.79. The good range of dissolved oxygen in the water is 2-10 ppm.

The results showed levels of ammonia during the study was 0.06 to 0.17 mg / l. Ammonia (NH3) is the result of the decay process of organic material by bacteria and composition of nitrogen compounds by bacteria. Ammonia toxicity to animals aquaculture will increase if there is a decrease of dissolved oxygen and increasing the temperature and pH value. The elements contained in seaweed biofertilizer (A. nodosum) is expected to affect water quality in water research. Nitrogen can be used by phytoplankton for the nitrification process and the process of assimilation. Phosphate (P2O2) can give change in fertility waters.


Conclussion
Based on this research, it is known that the product biofertilizer seaweed (A. nodosum) effect on changes in water quality and affect the growth of tilapia (O. niloticus) and celery (A. graveolens). The growth of tilapia and celery highest in the administration biofertilizer treatment D at a dose of 3 ml / l of water.


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